Blennerhassett Family Tree
Genealogy one-name study - by Bill Jehan
   Introduction      Key      Key to Words (Glossery)
 
Key to Words & Abbreviations
(Glossery)
 
 
 
 
ac. 
acre or acres (measurement of land area)
ACT 
Australian Capital Territory (includes the cities of Canberra & Latham)
admon. 
administration; a grant of administration for probate, made e.g. where no Will has been found 
advowson 
in the church, the right of presentation to the Bishop of a candidate for a vacant benefice or living (e.g.  rectory or vicarage), so called because the patron advocates the claims of the person he presents
a.k.a. 
also known as 
annulet (amulet)
heraldic term for a small plain ring, used as a mark of cadency to indicate a fifth son or descent from a fifth son
 
In East Anglia (Co.Norfolk, Co.Suffolk, Co.Essex) the Blennerhassett arms sometimes occur charged with an annulet for difference. The fifth son in this case was Ralph de Blenerhayset, Esquire of Carlisle, Co.Cumberland, who married Jane de Lowdham (of Lowdham, Co.Suffolk; Frenze, Co.Norfolk; and Kelvedon, Co.Essex). Ralph settled at Loudham, later at Frenze, and is ancestor of the Blennerhassetts of East Anglia and of Co.Fermanagh, Ireland
ante
before (e.g. ante 1862 = before 1862); see post
ANZAC 
Australian & New Zealand Army Corps 
appaumè 
in heraldry describes a hand open, showing the palm 
archdeacon 
a cleric, ranking immediately below a bishop 
argent 
heraldic term for the metal silver, also used to represent the colour white
Armorial 
A Roll of Arms - a collection of coats of arms, these may be recorded in a variety of ways; written (blazon), painted, drawn or carved; usually arranged as a row of shields accompanied by the identity of the person bearing the arms.
armorial achievement
or armorial bearings
in heraldry, a coat of arms represented in full with its shield, helmet, crest, mantling, wreath, and, if appropriate, motto and supporters
 
in the USA an armorial achievement is often described, incorrectly, as a crest
arms
heraldic bearings or insignia (see coat of arms)  
angel 
a gold coin introduced in England in 1464, valued at 6s 8d (1/2 mark) but the value of gold coins tended to change over time. See noble
art. 
article 
Ass't 
Assistant 
azure 
heraldic term for the tincture (colour) blue
 
 
b. 
born (at the stated date or place)
BA 
Bachelor of Arts degree
badge 
in heraldry a badge is a distinctive mark, a cognizance, somewhat similar to a crest  but not placed on a wreath or worn on the helmet. The badge was a possession of princes, noblemen and other gentlemen of rank
 
The badge of a baronet is "sinister, a hand gules (i.e. a bloody hand) in a field argent", the arms of the Baronets Blennerhassett of Blennerville in Co.Kerry, created 1809, being charged with this
bailiff
in medieval times, a local official who oversaw day-to-day running of a manor (a.k.a. mainprize)
bapt. 
baptized; christened 
Baron 
a Peer of the lowest order of British nobility 
Baron of the Exchequer 
a judge of the court of "the exchequer of Pleas", one of the three ancient courts of England, now abolished;
the "Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer" was the most senior judge, who presided over and spoke for the court
Bart. or Bt. 
Baronet; holder of a Baronetcy, the lowest British titled order that is hereditary. A Baronet is addressed as "Sir", his wife or widow as "Lady", in the same manner as a knight
 
Baronets are not Peers, so do not sit in the House of Lords; see badge
BC 
British Columbia, Canada 
BCT 
"Brecon County Times" newspaper 
benefice 
a living; any ecclesiastical office in the church of England - rectory, vicarage, curacy or chaplaincy 
BH 
Blennerhassett 
bro. 
brother 
bun. 
bundle 
bur. 
buried 
burgess 
A Freeman or Citizen of an English Borough (town)
BWI 
British West Indies 
 
 
CFA 
County Fire Authority (in Australia)
c. or ca.
circa, at about this date (e.g. c1431) or at about this age (e.g. c21 years of age)
cadency
in heraldry, marks of cadency were added to arms, for difference, to indicate seniority of inheritance or succession of the holder:
 
son
mark of cadency  
 
the eldest son
label (held during the lifetime of his father)
 
2nd son 
crescent (a "crescent within a crescent" indicates the second son of a second son)
 
3rd son 
mullet (molet)
 
4th son 
martlet 
 
5th son 
annulet (amulet)
 
6th son 
fleur-de-lys (fleur-de-lis)
 
7th son 
rose 
 
8th son 
cross moline 
 
9th son 
octofoil (double-quatrofoil, double-quatrefoil) 
 
 
canon 
senior cleric (churchman), member of a cathedral chapter 
cem. 
cemetery 
caveat 
a legal process, in court, to suspend proceedings 
ch. 
chapter 
cinquefoil 
heraldic term for a flower, usually of five petals 
cleric 
clergyman, churchman
CI 
The Channel Islands (principally Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark) in the English Channel off the coast of France; part of Normandy at the time of the Norman invasion of England in 1066 but have remained loyally British ever since
Cmdr. 
Commander 
Co. 
County (a.k.a. Shire)
coat of arms 
properly a tabard or surcoat blazoned with armorial bearings indicating the wearer's ancestry and distinction, but now usually a representation of these armorial bearings depicted on a shield
 
a coat of arms displayed or represented with accompanying crest, motto, etc is called armorial achievement or amorial bearings
 
in the USA a coat of arms is often described, incorrectly, as a crest
codicil 
an addition to a previously existing Will 
C. of E. 
Church of England (Anglican communion), the established church in England
C. of I. 
Church of Ireland (Anglican communion) 
C. of S. 
Church of Scotland (Anglican communion) 
Col. 
Colonel 
Coll. 
college 
colours 
heraldic term for the dark tinctures (see metals)
commendator 
a minor cleric, of too young an age to be made rector, could in some circumstances be made commendator of a benefice;
as such he could take the income but needed to employ a priest or chaplain to minister to the parish; in effect he was acting as trustee for the benefice until he reached the age of 18years, when he could be considered for appointment as Rector
cooper 
a barrel maker (craftsman), making wooden barrels to be used for transporting and storing wine, beer, fish, etc
cornage 
a feudal rent or tax based on the number of horned cattle held (from the french corne, meaning a horn)
county 
A local government region, in some instances also known as a shire. An English county may be correctly known e.g. as "the County of Gloucester" or as "Gloucestershire", but not as "The County of Gloucestershire" 
cousin-german 
derived from "cousin-germain"; in early times this indicated a near relative or person sharing a common descent; in modern times it is specifically a 1st cousin
CPR 
Canadian Pacific Railway 
cr. 
created 
crest 
in heraldry, a component of armorial bearings usually carried or depicted on top of a helmet and displayed above the shield of a coat-of-arms
 
in the USA the word crest is often used to describe a coat of arms or full armorial achievement
CS 
Civil Service 
curate 
in modern times a trainee cleric (clergyman), but in the past this could mean any cleric
 
 
d. 
died (deceased) 
(D) 
divorced 
Dame 
the wife or widow of a Knight; in recent times, as a title in it's own right, the female equivalent of a knight
DCM 
Distinguished Conduct Medal 
DD 
Doctor of Divinity 
dexter 
heraldic term indicating the right of the field, as seen by the bearer of the arms, i.e. the viewer's left (see sinister)
DL 
Deputy Lieutenant of a County; deputy to the Lord Lieutenant, the Monarch's personal representative in each county
Dolphin 
the dolphin, known as king of fish, in heraldry may be represented:
  • Naiant
  • Hauriant
  • Uriant
  • Embowed
  • Swimming horizontally, facing dexter (i.e. fesseways)
    Swimming upwards, in a perpendicular attitude (i.e. paleways)
    Swimming downwards, in a perpendicular attitude
    with back arched
    DoN 
    Duke of Norfolk 
    Dr. 
    Doctor, often Doctor of Medicine (see MD
    DSO 
    Distinguished Service Order 
    DSM 
    Distinguished Service Medal 
    dsp 
    decessit sine prole (died without issue) 
    dvp 
    decessit viat patria (died in the lifetime of the father) 
     
     
    ed. or edit. 
    edited 
    edu. 
    educated
    e.g. 
    for example 
    embowed 
    heraldic term for curved or bent
    for a dolphin specifically, this means "swimming horizontally, facing dexter, with back arched"
    emig. 
    emigrated 
    entail
    to bequeath landed property such that it must be passed down within the family, not given away or sold by later generations.
    often such property was left "in tail male", the property passing only from eldest son to eldest son.
    an example of this is contained in the Will of "The Great Colonel John" Blennerhassett 1774
    ent. 
    entered 
    episcopalian 
    of the Anglican church in the USA 
    ermine 
    heraldic term for fur, specifically the winter coat of the stoat, white with a black tail.
    in heraldry, ermine is represented as white with (usually five or seven) black "ermine spots"
    escutcheon 
    heraldic term for the shield on which a coat of arms is displayed  
    est. 
    estimated date
     
     
    f. & ff.
    folio & folios
    FAI 
    Fellow of the Auctioneer's Institute 
    feet of fines
     
    A procedure for ending legal action by agreement between the parties, the agreement being known as a final concord or "fine". Early fines could be made in the Exchequer; after the early 14th century, fines were always made in the Court of Common Pleas.
    Originally a means of resolving genuine disputes, by the middle of the 13th century the fine had become a popular method of conveying freehold property, the legal action being initiated with the cooperation of both parties. This procedure survived until the 1830s.
     
    Three copies of an agreement were made on a single sheet, two on the upper left and right halves, a third at the bottom, or foot, of the document. The three copies were separated, by cutting the sheet along indented lines. The right and left copies were given to the two parties, the third copy at the "foot" of the document being preserved among the records of the court, safe from accidental loss or forgery. For this reason the documents are known as "feet of fines".
    One reason for the popularity of feet of fines was that married women could participate in them without the risk of a later challenge on the grounds that they had been coerced by their husbands. As a result, married couples often used feet of fines to convey property.
     
    There are no comprehensive indexes for feet of fines, but for some English counties local record societies have published calendars covering particular periods. There are some indexes covering particular periods and counties, mainly compiled in the 17th century. 
    feofee  
    to invest with a fief; the beneficiary of a feoffment; one to whom land is given as a fief  
    fief 
    inheritable land held from a lord, in return for service
    field
    heraldic term for the surface of the shield in a coat of arms
    finned 
    heraldic term for a fish (or dolphin) with the fins coloured differently to the body 
    fl. 
    flourished (i.e. was living) at this date, e.g. fl.1421 
    folio
    a folio is both page sides of a single manuscript sheet, the front side called "recto", the reverse side called "verso".
    the recto side is indicated e.g. as f.137r (or simply f.137), the verso side as f.137v
    fortnight 
    fourteen nights, two weeks (see sennite)
    FRCP 
    Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London 
    FRCS 
    Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of London 
    FRCSI 
    Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland 
     
     
    GB 
    Great Britain (see UK)
     
    The crown of Scotland had joined with that of England in 1603, when the Stuart King James III of Scotland also became King James I of England. Great Britain was formed in 1707 by a union of the parliament of Scotland with that of England & Wales (themselves joined 1535)
    GEDCOM 
    a standard text file format for computerised family tree data, enabling it be read by any genealogy software program
    Gov. 
    Governor 
    Gt. 
    Great 
    gules 
    heraldic term for the tincture (colour) red 
     
     
    hauriant 
    heraldic term, applied to a fish (or dolphin) which is upright; i.e. in a perpendicular attitude (i.e. paleways) - see naiant
    heraldry 
    A term encompassing the devising, granting, and blazoning of coats-of-arms.
    Refer to a heraldic dictionary for definitions of heraldic terms not listed here.
    Hon. 
    Honourable 
     
     
    ibid. 
    ibidem (latin) = "from the same source", "in the same book or passage as the previous note" 
    i.e. 
    that is 
    inc. 
    including 
    inf. 
    infant 
    incumbent 
    the holder of a church benefice, e.g. rector or vicar 
    in tail male 
    an entail where landed property is bequeathed such that it is kept within the family, passing from eldest son to eldest son.
    an example of this is contained in the Will of "The Great Colonel John" Blennerhassett 1774
    i.p.m. 
    Inquisition Post Mortem ("inquisition after death"), a.k.a escheats.
     
    This was a local inquiry into lands held by a deceased person who had been a feudal tenant in chief (direct tenant of the crown), to establish what lands were held and who should succeed to them. The principal purpose was to discover what income and legal rights were due to the King. They survive from around 1240 until the Restoration in 1660, when feudal tenure was abolished. They are in no way connected with the modern medical post mortem, carried out after a suspicious death.

    After the death of a tenant in chief, a writ (of 'diem clausit extremum') would be issued to the local escheator, the official responsible for taking possession of the dead tenant's estate. He would then convene a local jury and conduct an inquiry - usually a separate one was held in each of the counties where the deceased had held land. The earliest inquisitions are less detailed, but generally the information recorded would include the date when the tenant died, the names of the manors held and details of the services performed in return for them, and also the name, age and relationship of the heir (or of each coheir). The ages might well be approximate, particularly if given in 'round figures', and for older heirs; if the heir were a minor, however, accuracy would be important.

     
     
    Jr.
    Junior 
     
     
    KC 
    King's Council, a barrister-at-law (see QC)
    KIA 
    killed in action 
    Knight
    member of an order of knighthood; a title originating in the middle ages, originally awarded for military service but in modern times may be awarded for any significant service over a long period
     
    a knighthood, unlike a Baronetcy, is not hereditary, but a knight is addressed as "Sir", his wife or widow as "Lady", in the same manner as a Baronet
    Knight of the Shire 
    MP (Member of Parliament) representing a county in the national parliament at Westminster (London), or in Ireland before 1801, at Dublin
     
     
    Lady 
    title and form of address for the wife or widow of a Peer (Lord), Baronet or Knight
    langued 
    heraldic term for the tongue of a beast where shown in a different colour to the body 
    living 
    an ecclesiastical benefice 
    LL.B. 
    bachelor of laws degree 
    Lord
    another name for a Peer; also the form of address for a Peer
    lord of the manor 
    the holder of a manor in medieval and later England; this is not a title or rank, they are not Peers - lords of the manor are usually of the untitled land owning class known as landed gentry; in modern times "lordships of the manor" have sometimes been sold, with supporting documents, separately from the property to which they relate
    Lt. or Lieut.
    Lieutenant
    Lt.Col. 
    Lieutenant-Colonel 
    Lt.Gov. 
    Lieutenant-Governor 
     
     
    m. 
    married 
    MA 
    Master of Arts degree
    mainprize 
    bailiff; in medieval times, a local official who oversaw the day-to-day running of a manor
    march or marches 
    border or "border country", e.g. the area close to the border between England and Scotland 
    mark 
    In England where the currency unit was £1 = 12s = 240d the mark was a unit of money of account, equal to 13s 4d (i.e. 2/3 of a £).
     
    In account books, probate inventories, etc an amount in money could appear written e.g. as "5 marks" but more often the 5 marks would be written as the currency equivalent, £3 6s 8d. This is the reason that so many inventory valuations end in either 6s 8d (1/2 mark) or 13s 4d (1 mark). Only accountants could have devised such a system.
     
    The mark did not exist as a coin in England, although the gold noble when first issued in 1344 was valued at 6s 8d (= 1/2 mark) and the gold angel when introduced in 1464 was also worth 6s 8d, but the value of gold coins tended to change over time.
     
    The term "noble" continued to be used as a word meaning "1/2 mark" long after the noble itself had ceased to be in circulation as a coin.
    manor house 
    residence of the lord of the manor and his household; in modern times the house of the principal landowner in a village community
    MBE 
    Member of the Order of the British Empire 
    MD 
    Doctor of Medicine (see Dr.)
    mem. 
    member 
    memorandum
    or
    memoranda 
    a noncupative or oral Will, spoken to witnesses, is recorded by those witnesses as a written Will headed "memorandum" or "memoranda"
    metals
    heraldic term for the light tinctures (see colours)
    Mgr. 
    manager 
    MHF 
    Master of Foxhounds 
    MO 
    Medical Officer 
    MP 
    Member of Parliament representing a County, City or Borough constituency in parliament (see Knight of the Shire)
    MRCS 
    Member of the Royal College of Surgeons 
    Ms. & Mss.
    manuscript & manuscripts
    mullet 
    heraldic term for a five pointed star
     
     
    naiant 
    heraldic term, applied to a fish (or dolphin) swimming horizontally, facing dexter (i.e. fesseways) - see haurient
    noble 
    a gold coin introduced in England in 1344, valued at 6s 8d (1/2 mark) but the value of gold coins tended to change over time. See angel
    Noncupative Will 
    a spoken Will, a Will delivered orally to witnesses, often on a person's deathbed.
     
    such an oral Will is recorded by the witnesses as a written Will headed memorandum or memoranda
    NS
    "New Series" of a periodical or professional journal (see OS
    NSW 
    New South Wales, Australia 
    NZ 
    New Zealand 
     
     
    OBE 
    Officer of the Order of the British Empire 
    obit. 
    obituary 
    Or 
    heraldic term for the metal gold (the "O" always upper case)
    OS 
    "Old Series" of a periodical or professional journal (see NS
     
     
    p. & pp.
    page & pages
    papal bull 
    a document recording an official edict of the pope in Rome, issued by the Vatican
    patron 
    person holding the advowson for an ecclesiastical  parish (usually the person on whose land the church was built, often the lord of the manor
    PC 
    Privy Councellor 
    PDF 
    Adobe Systems Portable Document Format. This file format enables an image of data, created using any application (software, program) on any type of computer, to be shared shared with people using different applications and different computer types.
    Peer
    in the UK, the holder of one of the five degrees of nobility, Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount or Baron;
    these titles are hereditary, the holder being a member of the Peerage, a Lord
    peerage 
    the nobility 
    Peer of the Realm 
    a "Peer of the United Kingdom", entitled (until recently) to sit and vote in the House of Lords, the British parliamentary upper house 
    Ph.D. 
    Doctor of Philosophy degree
    Pl. 
    plate, illustration in a book
    post 
    after (e.g. post 1862 = after 1862); see ante 
    pr. 
    probate, the proving of a Will; in England & Wales until 1858 this was in an ecclesiastical court, from 1858 at the [PPR]
    prebend 
    the stipend of a Canon
    prebendary or preb.
    the holder of a prebend; a non-residential or honorary Canon of a cathedral 
    precentor 
    a senior cleric at a cathedral, responsible for direction of choral services 
    proper or ppr.
    heraldic term for an animal or object displayed "in its natural colour" 
    provost 
    anciently, an officer of a medieval administrative district
     
    also the Steward or Bailiff of a medieval manor 
    pub. 
    published 
     
     
    QC 
    Queen's Council, a barrister-at-law (see KC)
    QLD 
    Queensland, Australia 
    quire 
    eight folios (i.e. 16 page sides) of manuscript, created by folding a single large sheet of parchment or vellum three times
     
     
    RAF 
    Royal Air Force 
    RAAF 
    Royal Australian Air Force 
    RC 
    Roman Catholic church 
    RCAF 
    Royal Canadian Air Force 
    Ref. 
    Reference 
    rector 
     
    cleric holding a benefice where the tithe was paid directly to the incumbent; in modern times may be responsible for other clergy and several parishes 
    rectory  
    residence of a rector  
    regnal year 
    A regnal year is reckoned starting from the date of a sovereign's accession or its anniversary, e.g. Henry VIII became King of England 22-Apr-1509, therefore the regnal year "30 Henry VIII" is 22-Apr-1538 to 21-Apr-1539.
    register 
    an official record of events bound into a series of volumes
    e.g. Birth, Marriage or Death Register; Bishops' (Diocesan) Register; PCC Probate Register
    relict 
    widow or widower 
    RM 
    Registered Midwife 
    RN 
    Royal Navy
    RAN 
    Royal Australian Navy 
    RCN 
    Royal Canadian Navy (before 1968)
    RIC 
    Royal Irish Constabulary 
    RNZAF 
    Royal New Zealand Air Force 
    RNZN 
    Royal New Zealand Navy 
    Roll of Arms 
    An Armorial - a collection of coats of arms, these may be recorded in a variety of ways; written (blazon), painted, drawn or carved; usually arranged as a row of shields accompanied by the identity of the person bearing the arms. 
    RUC 
    Royal Ulster Constabulary 
     
     
    SA 
    South Africa 
    sable 
    heraldic term for the tincture (colour) black 
    sec. 
    secretary 
    sep. 
    separated 
    sigillum 
    a seal (latin)
    sejant 
    heraldic term for "in a sitting posture" 
    sennite 
    seven nights, one week (see fortnight)
    seawake 
    watching the coast for invasion 
    sentence 
    in probate, a judgement about a disputed Will, given at the conclusion of litigation 
    shire 
    A local government region, also known as a county. An English county may be correctly known e.g. as "the County of Gloucester" or as "Gloucestershire", but not as "The County of Gloucestershire" 
    sinister 
    heraldic term indicating the left of the field, as seen by the bearer of the arms
    i.e. the viewer's right (see dexter)
    Soc. 
    Society 
    spreadsheet 
    a spreadsheet is a computer file simulating a flat accounting work sheet, or the software from which it is generated
    Sr. 
    Senior
    SRN 
    (State) Registered Nurse 
    suit of court 
    attendance at the manor court 
     
     
    TCD 
    Trinity College, Dublin (anciently the only University in Dublin) 
    temp. 
    during the time of 
    term for the heraldic use and representation of metals, colours and furs 
     
    Metals (light tinctures)
    Or 
    gold/yellow 
    argent 
    silver/white 
     
    Colours (dark tinctures)
    azure 
    blue 
    gules 
    red 
    purpure 
    purple 
    sable 
    black 
    vert 
    green 
    proper (ppr.)
     
    in its natural colour,
    i.e. as found in nature 
     
    trefoil 
    heraldic term for a three lobed leaf, i.e. a stylised clover leaf 
     
     
    UC 
    a page of this website that is Under Construction, not ready to be viewed
    UDV 
    United Dairy Farmers of Victoria (Australia) 
    USA 
    United States of America 
    UK 
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - called such from 1801, when the parliaments of Great Britain (GB) and Ireland combined and home-rule for Ireland ended. The name continued officially until 1927, but in reality only until the Republic of Ireland was formed and withdrew from the union in 1922
     
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (from 1927)
    unm. 
    unmarried 
     
     
    v. or vol. 
    volume 
    vert 
    heraldic term for the tincture (colour) green; in monochrome this is represented by as closely spaced diagonal lines, upper left to lower right 
    vicar 
    an Anglican cleric (priest), the incumbent of an ecclesiastical parish of the established Church of England/Scotland/Ireland etc
    vicarage 
    residence of a vicar 
    VFF
    Victorian Farmers' Federation, Victoria, Australia
     
     
    yrs 
    years 
     
      
      
     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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